Source code for efficient_apriori.rules

#!/usr/bin/env python3
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Implementations of algorithms related to association rules.
"""

import typing
import numbers
import itertools
from efficient_apriori.itemsets import apriori_gen


[docs]class Rule(object): """ A class for a rule. """ # Number of decimals used for printing _decimals = 3 def __init__( self, lhs: tuple, rhs: tuple, count_full: int = 0, count_lhs: int = 0, count_rhs: int = 0, num_transactions: int = 0, ): """ Initialize a new rule. This call is a thin wrapper around some data. Parameters ---------- lhs : tuple The left hand side (antecedent) of the rule. Each item in the tuple must be hashable, e.g. a string or an integer. rhs : tuple The right hand side (consequent) of the rule. count_full : int The count of the union of the lhs and rhs in the dataset. count_lhs : int The count of the lhs in the dataset. count_rhs : int The count of the rhs in the dataset. num_transactions : int The number of transactions in the dataset. Examples -------- >>> r = Rule(('a', 'b'), ('c',), 50, 100, 150, 200) >>> r.confidence # Probability of 'c', given 'a' and 'b' 0.5 >>> r.support # Probability of ('a', 'b', 'c') in the data 0.25 >>> # Ratio of observed over expected support if lhs, rhs = independent >>> r.lift == 2 / 3 True >>> print(r) {a, b} -> {c} (conf: 0.500, supp: 0.250, lift: 0.667, conv: 0.500) >>> r {a, b} -> {c} """ self.lhs = lhs # antecedent self.rhs = rhs # consequent self.count_full = count_full self.count_lhs = count_lhs self.count_rhs = count_rhs self.num_transactions = num_transactions @property def confidence(self): """ The confidence of a rule is the probability of the rhs given the lhs. If X -> Y, then the confidence is P(Y|X). """ try: return self.count_full / self.count_lhs except ZeroDivisionError: return None except AttributeError: return None @property def support(self): """ The support of a rule is the frequency of which the lhs and rhs appear together in the dataset. If X -> Y, then the support is P(Y and X). """ try: return self.count_full / self.num_transactions except ZeroDivisionError: return None except AttributeError: return None @property def lift(self): """ The lift of a rule is the ratio of the observed support to the expected support if the lhs and rhs were independent.If X -> Y, then the lift is given by the fraction P(X and Y) / (P(X) * P(Y)). """ try: observed_support = self.count_full / self.num_transactions prod_counts = self.count_lhs * self.count_rhs expected_support = prod_counts / self.num_transactions**2 return observed_support / expected_support except ZeroDivisionError: return None except AttributeError: return None @property def conviction(self): """ The conviction of a rule X -> Y is the ratio P(not Y) / P(not Y | X). It's the proportion of how often Y does not appear in the data to how often Y does not appear in the data, given X. If the ratio is large, then the confidence is large and Y appears often. """ try: eps = 10e-10 # Avoid zero division prob_not_rhs = 1 - self.count_rhs / self.num_transactions prob_not_rhs_given_lhs = 1 - self.confidence return prob_not_rhs / (prob_not_rhs_given_lhs + eps) except ZeroDivisionError: return None except AttributeError: return None @property def rpf(self): """ The RPF (Rule Power Factor) is the confidence times the support. """ try: return self.confidence * self.support except ZeroDivisionError: return None except AttributeError: return None @staticmethod def _pf(s): """ Pretty formatting of an iterable. """ return "{" + ", ".join(str(k) for k in s) + "}" def __repr__(self): """ Representation of a rule. """ return "{} -> {}".format(self._pf(self.lhs), self._pf(self.rhs)) def __str__(self): """ Printing of a rule. """ conf = "conf: {0:.3f}".format(self.confidence) supp = "supp: {0:.3f}".format(self.support) lift = "lift: {0:.3f}".format(self.lift) conv = "conv: {0:.3f}".format(self.conviction) return "{} -> {} ({}, {}, {}, {})".format(self._pf(self.lhs), self._pf(self.rhs), conf, supp, lift, conv) def __eq__(self, other): """ Equality of two rules. """ return (set(self.lhs) == set(other.lhs)) and (set(self.rhs) == set(other.rhs)) def __hash__(self): """ Hashing a rule for efficient set and dict representation. """ return hash(frozenset(self.lhs + self.rhs)) def __len__(self): """ The length of a rule, defined as the number of items in the rule. """ return len(self.lhs + self.rhs)
def generate_rules_simple( itemsets: typing.Dict[int, typing.Dict], min_confidence: float, num_transactions: int, ): """ DO NOT USE. This is a simple top-down algorithm for generating association rules. It is included here for testing purposes, and because it is mentioned in the 1994 paper by Agrawal et al. It is slow because it does not enumerate the search space efficiently: it produces duplicates, and it does not prune the search space efficiently. Simple algorithm for generating association rules from itemsets. """ # Iterate over every size for size in itemsets.keys(): # Do not consider itemsets of size 1 if size < 2: continue # This algorithm returns duplicates, so we keep track of items yielded # in a set to avoid yielding duplicates yielded: set = set() yielded_add = yielded.add # Iterate over every itemset of the prescribed size for itemset in itemsets[size].keys(): # Generate rules for result in _genrules(itemset, itemset, itemsets, min_confidence, num_transactions): # If the rule has been yieded, keep going, else add and yield if result in yielded: continue else: yielded_add(result) yield result def _genrules(l_k, a_m, itemsets, min_conf, num_transactions): """ DO NOT USE. This is the gen-rules algorithm from the 1994 paper by Agrawal et al. It's a subroutine called by `generate_rules_simple`. However, the algorithm `generate_rules_simple` should not be used. The naive algorithm from the original paper. Parameters ---------- l_k : tuple The itemset containing all elements to be considered for a rule. a_m : tuple The itemset to take m-length combinations of, an move to the left of l_k. The itemset a_m is a subset of l_k. """ def count(itemset): """ Helper function to retrieve the count of the itemset in the dataset. """ return itemsets[len(itemset)][itemset] # Iterate over every k - 1 combination of a_m to produce # rules of the form a -> (l - a) for a_m in itertools.combinations(a_m, len(a_m) - 1): # Compute the count of this rule, which is a_m -> (l_k - a_m) confidence = count(l_k) / count(a_m) # Keep going if the confidence level is too low if confidence < min_conf: continue # Create the right hand set: rhs = (l_k - a_m) , and keep it sorted rhs = set(l_k).difference(set(a_m)) rhs = tuple(sorted(rhs)) # Create new rule object and yield it yield Rule(a_m, rhs, count(l_k), count(a_m), count(rhs), num_transactions) # If the left hand side has one item only, do not recurse the function if len(a_m) <= 1: continue yield from _genrules(l_k, a_m, itemsets, min_conf, num_transactions)
[docs]def generate_rules_apriori( itemsets: typing.Dict[int, typing.Dict[tuple, int]], min_confidence: float, num_transactions: int, verbosity: int = 0, ): """ Bottom up algorithm for generating association rules from itemsets, very similar to the fast algorithm proposed in the original 1994 paper by Agrawal et al. The algorithm is based on the observation that for {a, b} -> {c, d} to hold, both {a, b, c} -> {d} and {a, b, d} -> {c} must hold, since in general conf( {a, b, c} -> {d} ) >= conf( {a, b} -> {c, d} ). In other words, if either of the two one-consequent rules do not hold, then there is no need to ever consider the two-consequent rule. Parameters ---------- itemsets : dict of dicts The first level of the dictionary is of the form (length, dict of item sets). The second level is of the form (itemset, count_in_dataset)). min_confidence : float The minimum confidence required for the rule to be yielded. num_transactions : int The number of transactions in the data set. verbosity : int The level of detail printing when the algorithm runs. Either 0, 1 or 2. Examples -------- >>> itemsets = {1: {('a',): 3, ('b',): 2, ('c',): 1}, ... 2: {('a', 'b'): 2, ('a', 'c'): 1}} >>> list(generate_rules_apriori(itemsets, 1.0, 3)) [{b} -> {a}, {c} -> {a}] """ # Validate user inputs if not ((0 <= min_confidence <= 1) and isinstance(min_confidence, numbers.Number)): raise ValueError("`min_confidence` must be a number between 0 and 1.") if not ((num_transactions >= 0) and isinstance(num_transactions, numbers.Number)): raise ValueError("`num_transactions` must be a number greater than 0.") def count(itemset): """ Helper function to retrieve the count of the itemset in the dataset. """ return itemsets[len(itemset)][itemset] if verbosity > 0: print("Generating rules from itemsets.") # For every itemset of a perscribed size for size in itemsets.keys(): # Do not consider itemsets of size 1 if size < 2: continue if verbosity > 0: print(" Generating rules of size {}.".format(size)) # For every itemset of this size for itemset in itemsets[size].keys(): # Special case to capture rules such as {others} -> {1 item} for removed in itertools.combinations(itemset, 1): # Compute the left hand side remaining = set(itemset).difference(set(removed)) lhs = tuple(sorted(remaining)) # If the confidence is high enough, yield the rule conf = count(itemset) / count(lhs) if conf >= min_confidence: yield Rule( lhs, removed, count(itemset), count(lhs), count(removed), num_transactions, ) # Generate combinations to start off of. These 1-combinations will # be merged to 2-combinations in the function `_ap_genrules` H_1 = list(itertools.combinations(itemset, 1)) yield from _ap_genrules(itemset, H_1, itemsets, min_confidence, num_transactions) if verbosity > 0: print("Rule generation terminated.\n")
def _ap_genrules( itemset: tuple, H_m: typing.List[tuple], itemsets: typing.Dict[int, typing.Dict[tuple, int]], min_conf: float, num_transactions: int, ): """ Recursively build up rules by adding more items to the right hand side. This algorithm is called `ap-genrules` in the original paper. It is called by the `generate_rules_apriori` generator above. See it's docs. Parameters ---------- itemset : tuple The itemset under consideration. H_m : tuple Subsets of the itemset of length m, to be considered for rhs of a rule. itemsets : dict of dicts All itemsets and counts for in the data set. min_conf : float The minimum confidence for a rule to be returned. num_transactions : int The number of transactions in the data set. """ def count(itemset): """ Helper function to retrieve the count of the itemset in the dataset. """ return itemsets[len(itemset)][itemset] # If H_1 is so large that calling `apriori_gen` will produce right-hand # sides as large as `itemset`, there will be no right hand side. # This should not happen happen, so we return. if len(itemset) <= (len(H_m[0]) + 1): return # Generate right-hand itemsets of length k + 1 if H is of length k H_m = list(apriori_gen(H_m)) H_m_copy = H_m.copy() # For every possible right hand side for h_m in H_m: # Compute the left hand side of the rule lhs = tuple(sorted(set(itemset).difference(set(h_m)))) # If the confidence is high enough, yield the rule, else remove from # the upcoming recursive generator call if (count(itemset) / count(lhs)) >= min_conf: yield Rule( lhs, h_m, count(itemset), count(lhs), count(h_m), num_transactions, ) else: H_m_copy.remove(h_m) # Unless the list of right-hand sides is empty, recurse the generator call if H_m_copy: yield from _ap_genrules(itemset, H_m_copy, itemsets, min_conf, num_transactions) if __name__ == "__main__": import pytest pytest.main(args=[".", "--doctest-modules", "-v"])